It’s a rare sight, but if you are a cat owner, you may have seen your cat breathing fast. No, it’s not transforming into a dog. When you see this happening, you should ask yourself “Why is my cat breathing fast?” and carefully observe your cat’s breathing patterns. It is not a common sight, and there can be some serious consequences.
Fast breathing can vary from seeing slightly faster chest movements to open-mouthed breathing and major abdominal effort.
Dyspnea is labored breathing, usually with an open mouth. The belly and chest move in an exaggerated manner while breathing, and the breaths may be noisy. This may be caused by a variety of factors that may or may not be related to things that cause other breathing disorders.
Panting is fast and shallow breathing with an open mouth, usually caused by high body temperature from a hot environment or a fever. It can also be caused by stress, or be a sign of asthma in affected cats.
The “breathing fast” phenomenon is formally called tachypnea, which is abnormally rapid breathing with a closed mouth.
Reasons For Your Kitty Breathing Fast
Tachypnea may be caused by low oxygen levels (hypoxemia) due to low red blood cell count (anemia), asthma, a lung infection (pneumonia) or the cat’s heart incapable of pumping enough blood through the cat’s body.
Heartworms are less common in cats than in dogs, but they can also cause breathing difficulties and can be fatal.
There may also be an obstruction in the airways causing the cat to have difficulty in breathing. This may be caused by fluid in the chest space surrounding the lungs (pleural effusion), a build-up of fluid in the air sacs in the lungs (pulmonary edema), bleeding into the lungs or even hernias through the diaphragm.
Most of these can be cured or managed by medications, such as feline asthma or pneumonia. Other causes, such as exposure to chemical fumes, pollen or dust can easily be prevented by proper pet care.
Others, like hernias, are more difficult to deal with because they require more invasive procedures, such as surgery.
Rapid breathing can also signal stress or pain. It is usually accompanied by increased heart rates, pupil dilation, and agitated behavior. Purring along with rapid breathing is also a sign of distress.
What To Do With Your Kitty?
The best immediate action is to bring the cat to the vet in a carrier. Transporting with a carrier prevents the cat from being squeezed when carried by the body, which may aggravate the breathing condition.
Of course, it is not always that simple. Sometimes there are no available veterinarians nearby, or the owner may discover the breathing symptoms in the evening and have to wait until the morning to bring the cat to the vet.
To determine if it is necessary to bring the cat to the vet immediately, there are procedures that can be performed at home. The first is observing the breathing patterns. Observe your cat to make sure that its symptoms mostly fit that of tachypnea.
If a breathing pattern is visible, you can count how many breaths they take every minute. The normal resting respiratory rate is around 15-30 breaths per minute.
You can also count the cat’s heartbeat. The heart rate can be measured by gently pressing your hand on the side of the cat’s chest. A normal heart rate can range from 130-160 beats per minute.
If the cat just finished playing vigorously, then it is normal to have elevated breathing rates and heartbeats, but if it occurs suddenly and without apparent cause, then make sure that the cat is brought to the vet, regardless what time it is.
The next step is to collect as much information and observations about the cat which will assist the vet in making a correct diagnosis.
Here is a general checklist to guide you on what you need to know:
- Age and weight
- Changes in eating, drinking, urination and defecation habits
- Changes in behavior, such as being listless
- Wheezing or coughing history
- Color of gums: Pink, red, grey, blue or white?
- When the cat began to exhibit symptoms
- What occurred before the cat exhibited symptoms
- Any previous history of underlying diseases
You can start observing the cat and collecting information, but given that diagnosing is complex, it is better to bring your pet to the vet. The doctor will ask for a medical history as well as the daily lifestyle of the cat which you have already noted.
The systemic exam that the vet will perform may include tests that may not even seem related to breathing, such as blood or urine analysis and biochemical profiles. These tests will show if the cat’s organs are functioning normally. The vet will also listen to the chest using a stethoscope for evidence of heart murmurs or fluid in the lungs.
After narrowing down the potential causes, your veterinarian may request imaging of your cat’s chest area via x-ray or ultrasound. The images will show if the heart is enlarged or if the lungs appear normal. This will also show if there is fluid build-up, foreign objects, potential tumors or masses that may cause the breathing disorder.
An electrocardiogram for the heart will determine if it is properly functioning. An endoscope may be used to inspect the air passages. If there is evidence of fluid in the chest, it will be drawn off using a needle.
When Your Kitty Is Back Home
After your cat is treated at the vet, don’t expect it to be 100% better right away. Allow for proper recovery by giving them their medication, and reducing the activity level of the cat.
The underlying cause for cat’s heavy panting can come from many sources and can be incredibly complex. The cat could just be feeling the effects of heat stroke and may only require water to combat hot weather, but there are many cases that the underlying cause is life threatening and can shorten the lifespan of the cat even when cured.
In the end, there is nothing that we can do as good pet parents but provide a healthy environment and a happy lifestyle for our cats, and hope for the best. If you can take just one small piece of knowledge away from this article, just remember- cats do not pant like dogs, and if your cat is open mouth breathing, it is always an emergency.